Adaptation - a specific structure, behavior or physiological mechanism that helps
an organism survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Adult (mature) - a fully developed and mature animal, physically capable
of breeding, but not necessarily doing so until social and/or
ecological conditions allow (www.seaturtle.org).
Albinism - mutation in the DNA which causes individuals to lack several
Algae a class of simple non-seed bearing plants.
Ambient temperature - temperature of the air in a particular area.
Amniote - an animal that produces an embryo within a sac that contains amniotic
fluid. Amniotes include turtles, lizards, snakes, tuataras, crocodilians,
birds, and mammals.
Anal - pertaining to the anal
- the science of the structure
and functioning of organisms.
- abnormalities or birth defects
Anterior - towards the front or head. Opposite: posterior.
Anthropogenic - effects or processes that are derived from human activities, as opposed
to natural effects or processes that occur in the environment
without human influences (www.seaturtle.org).
a large majority of a lifetime in or on the water. Opposite: terrestrial.
Archelon A now extinct gigantic sea turtle species from the late Cretaceous Period (74 million years ago). Thought
to have weighed about 2000 kg when alive and measure more than
4.5m long (www.seaturtle.org).
Arribada - a mass nesting of turtles on the same beach.
Beach - the shore zone, usually sand, from the low water line
up to a permanent line of vegetation or where the physical characteristics
of the ground change to rock outcroppings or cliffs (www.seaturtle.org).
Beak 1) a
horny projecting jaw. 2) small, beak like part of shell
valve along or above the hinge, represents earliest part of shell
and continues to form umbo. May be used as synonym for umbo (Stachowitsch,
Bekko (Japanese) a shell of the hawksbill.
Benthic Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water.
Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the
pelagic and coastal zones. Large juvenile sea turtles of different species usually frequent benthic zones (www.seaturtle.org).
that live on or in the bottom sediments of a water body.
Biodiversity a biological
variety of organisms, their genetic information and the biological
communties in a particular area or region.
Bioterrain Map A map of the physical/geographical
characteristics of a region combined with data that is relevant
to wildlife habitat, including soil moisture conditions and vegetation.
Biotic - living.
Black turtle (Chelonia mydas agassizzii) - green turtles that occur in the Eastern Pacific
that have morphological differences from other green turtles (in the Atlantic, Western Pacific,
Indian Ocean). Specifically, they tend to have darker carapaces and smaller body size than other green turtles. There
is some debate as to whether they are a separate species from green turtles, although at the current time, data from
DNA and morphological studies show that they are not a separate
Blue-Listed Species - any indigenous
species or subspecies (taxa) considered to be vulnerable in their locale. Vulnerable taxa
are of special concern because of characteristics that make them
particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events.
Blue-listed taxa are at risk, but are not Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened (en.wikipedia.org).
temperature - the interior rather than exterior surface
temperature of the body (usually measured per cloaca).
Bridge - the
part of the turtle shell between the fore and hind limbs connecting
the carapace and plastron.
bones - ventral parts of the shell that connect the peripheral bones of the carapace with the plastral bones.
Brooding - the incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded
to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be
responsible for brooding (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).
Brumation - a state similar to hibernation in which a reptile
dramatically reduces its food intake although it may still drink.
Both hibernation and brumation are a response to cold weather
but in brumation the animal's response does not exhibit the extreme
torpor of a hibernating animal (www.seaturtle.org).
Bycatch - organisms taken in a fishery that are not the species intended for harvest. After a catch is hauled aboard, the
non-commercial marine lifeЦУbycatchФЦ is culled out and thrown back. Bycatch can be fish with no
commercial value, juveniles of marketable species, sea turtles and birds, marine
mammals such as seals, dolphins and whales, and many other forms
of ocean life (www.seaturtle.org).
bred - animals which are born or hatched in captivity
from parents who mated while in captivity. Opposite: captive hatched.
hatched - animals which are born or hatched in captivity
from parents who mated in the wild.
the upper half of a turtle shell covered
by scutes or leatherly skin. The
carapace consists of nuchal scute, neural or vertebral or central
scute, marginal scute and pygal or supracaudal scute.
Carnivore - an organism that primarily
eats other animals.
referring to the tail.
Chelonian - a member
of the order of reptiles called Chelonia (also sometimes known
as Testudines), which include turtles, tortoises and terrapins.
CITES - The
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora. http://www.wcmc.org.uk:80/CITES/.
Cleaning Station - a place where sea turtles go to clean their shells. Small
fish eat the things that live or grow on the shell.
Cloaca (ovipositor, vent) a posterior opening
of the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts on the underside
of the tail.
Clutch (nest) a group of eggs laid in the same place at the same or nearly
the same time.
Clutch density - the number of eggs in
a single clutch.
Coastal - adjacent to ocean shores.
Coastal zone - the space in which terrestrial environments influence marine
(or lacustrine) environments and vice versa. The coastal
zone may change in time (Carter, 1988).
Blooded (exothermic) - body temperature and metabolism is controlled
by the external temperature.
Cold Stunning - the state that turtles enter when they are suddenly exposed
to very cold water (< 10 °C). They become lethargic and begin
to float on the surface of the water. In this state, they are
susceptible to predators, accidental boat strikes, and even death
if water temperatures continue to drop (www.seaturtle.org).
Competition - an interaction that occurs between individuals when both attempt to use
the same limited resource (space, food, mates, etc.).
Competitors individuals or species
that require the same limited resource to survive.
Conservation (preservation) - the regulation of human
use of the global ecosystem to sustain its diversity of content
indefinitely" (Nature Conservancy Council, 1984).
Conserve - to manage human use of
resources within an ecosystem in an attempt to restore, enhance,
protect, and sustain the quality and quantity of a desired mix
of species and ecosystem conditions for present and future generations.
Continental Shelf - Area of sea floor adjacent to a continent, sloping gently
to a depth of about 655 feet (200 m); beyond the shelf edge, the
sea floor drops steeply (via the continental slope) to the ocean
Copulate - to mate
Copulation - The act of sexual coupling by male and female (Morris 1992).
Costal - the series of plates located at the side and middle of
a chelonians shell between the vertebrals and marginals.
primarily during dawn and dusk hours of the day
Critical habitat - in the Endangered Species Act, the habitat that is determined essential
for a listed species' survival or population recovery.
Critically endangered - a taxon facing an extremely high risk of extinction
in the wild in the immediate future (IUCN Red List categories).
Current - horizontal movement of water in response
to meteorological, oceanographical and topographical factors.
Depleted Status: Species whose numbers are below its
optimal sustainable population level.
Diurnal - active primarily during the daylight.
Dorsal - referring to the upper surface of the back.
clutching - producing two or more clutches of eggs in
less than one year.
Ecology - the study of the interaction of organisms and their physical
and biological environment.
Ecosystem - a biotic community and its surroundings, part inorganic (abiotic) and
part organic (biotic), the latter including producers, consumers,
Ecotourism environmentally responsible tourism that teaches people
to appreciate and care for the natural environment and wildlife.
Also called sustainable tourism.
Ectotherm (cold-blooded, poikilotherm) an animal whose body temperature varies with
the temperature of its surroundings. All sea turtles are ectotherms.
Eggbound - a life threatening condition that prevents a female reptile from laying
her eggs. It is usually caused by one or more (usually infertile)
eggs adhering to the lining of the oviduct.
Egg chamber - the chamber constructed by a nesting turtle in the sand and into which the eggs will be deposited
for incubation (www.seaturtle.org).
Egg-tooth - a
temporary protuberance on the beak that enables hatchlings to
break through the egg shell.
Emergence success - the relative number of eggs in a clutch that produce live hatchlings that leave the nest chamber (www.seaturtle.org).
Endangered - a taxon when it is not Critically endangered but is
facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near
future (IUCN Red List categories).
Endangered Species - an animal that is considered in danger of extinction and appears
on Appendix I of the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
Endangered Species Act - regulation that protects species of animal or plant
that has been identified as in danger of becoming extinct because
of harmful human activity or environmental factors (Morris 1992).
Endangered Status - species in danger of extinction in all or significant portion
of its range, as defined by the Endangered Species Act.
Endemic species - a species native to and restricted a particular region or
Environment - the complex of biotic climatic,
edaphic and other conditions which comprise the immediate habitat
of an organism; the physical, chemical and biological surroundings
of an organism at any given time (Lincoln et al., 1998).
Environmental sex determination - the phenomenon when the sex of the
hatchlings is determined by the environment.
Epibiont - an organism which attaches itself to another organism without either
benefit or harm to the host. Epibionts are often to meet on the
turtle shells and skin.
Epifauna - animals
living on the body of a turtle.
Epipelagic - occupying the uppermost 200m of the ocean where light can penetrate and
photosynthesis can occur. Smaller juvenile turtles are thought to inhabit this area of the ocean
Epiphytic (epiphyte) - referring to an organism that lives on the surface
of another oranism and obtains its nutrients from the surrounding
environment. Sea turtles can have epiphytes such as remoras (www.seaturtle.org).
Erosion - the gradual wearing away of land forms or soil due to the action of
ice, water or wind.
Evolution: the process of gradual changes in the overall genetic composition
of a population of organisms over long periods of time.
Exothermic (Cold-blooded) an animal which body temperature and metabolism is controlled
by the external temperature.
Extinction - the disappearance of a type or groups of organism from the Earth.
Extinct - a taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last
individual has died (IUCN Red List categories).
Extirpation- the elimination
or disappearance of a species or subspecies from a particular
area, but not from its entire range
Fauna - all of the animal life found
in a particular region.
Fibropapilloma - a disease found in sea turtles that causes the growth of
large bulbous tumors; usually fatal.
Flatback turtle (Australian flatback) - essentially confined to the waters of Australia,
the flatback turtle nests mainly on undeveloped and remote nesting beaches on the north coast of Australia. The flatback has
a rather squat profile, hence its name (www.seaturtle.org).
Flipper - the limbs of seaturtles are referred to as flippers, fore and rear flippers
Foodchain - the transfer of energy through an ecosystem starting with primary producers
(plants) through a series of organisms (consumers) that eat and
are in turn eaten to decomposers.
Food web - the
complete set of all food chains between species in an ecosystem.
Feeding grounds (foraging area) - an area that animals
go to feed.
preserved remains of ancient organisms.
period) - the period from fertilization of egg until egg-laying.
Global warming - increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere
Gravid - bearing eggs.
Green Turtle Variations (Chelonia mydas) One of the seven
species of marine turtle alive
today. The latin name for the green turtle is Chelonia mydas.
It is a herbivore and feeds on seagrasses
and algae. Consequently it is the species of marine turtle favoured
for its meat and is sometimes known as the edible turtle (www.seaturtle.org).
- the natural environment in which an animal lives.
- a protected area where eggs or nests are relocated for incubation. Hatcheries can be either open-air
(outside) or indoors (covered) (www.seaturtle.org).
Hatching Success (emergence success) - the relative percentage of eggs
in a nest that produce live hatchlings (www.seaturtle.org).
Hatchling (baby turtle, neonate) - a turtle recently hatched from an
egg up to few weeks.
Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) - one of the seven species of marine turtle alive today. The latin name for the hawksbill
turtle is Eretmochelys imbricata. It is typically found
on and around coral reefs and has a hawk like beak for feeding on sponges and corals. it is classified as critically
Herbivore an animal that eats mainly plants. Green sea turtles are primarily herbivores
Herpetofauna (herp, herptile) - referring to both reptiles or amphibians.
Herpetologist a scientsist
studying reptiles and amphibians.
- branch of zoology which studies various aspects of reptiles
Hibernate - to pass the winter in a condition of hibernation
Hibernation - a dormant, sleeplike state,
with a lower body temperature and slower heart and breathing rate,
that is characteristic of various animals during the winter months
in cold climates, such as bears, bats, certain birds, snakes,
frogs, and turtles; this state tends to protect against cold weather
and to reduce the need for food (Morris 1992).
- movement of individuals into a population or an area.
Imprint - impress on or fix in the mind memory of a thing or person. In the case of
sea turtles, hatchling turtles are thought to imprint on the beach or coastal area from where they hatched, enabling them to
return to this site to breed (www.seaturtle.org).
Incidental capture (indirect capture, accidental capture, incidental take) - the
unintended capture of non-target species during fishing activity. For example, sometimes sea turtles
are incidentally captured during fishing activities for shrimp
or swordfish (www.seaturtle.org).
Indigenous - naturally occurring in more than one place.
a developmental phase of an egg prior to hatching
Internesting (Internesting interval, Internesting period) - the period of time between
a successful nest and the next nesting attempt (sea turtles of all species lay several clutches of eggs during a nesting season). Typically this is 10-18 days in most species (www.seaturtle.org).
IUCN (the World Conservation Union) - one
of the world's oldest international conservation organizations.
IUCN categories I-IV
In the IUCN classification system for
protected areas, categories I-IV refer to higher levels of protection.
IUCN Red List Categories are: Extinct, Extinct in the wild, Critically endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Lower risk, Data deficient, and Not evaluated. Click on each
categorie for detailed information.
IUCN Red List The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides information on
the conservation status of species that have been globally evaluated
for their probability of extinction using quantitative criteria.
The Red List is a compilation
of species categorized as Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable according to the IUCN Categories of Threat.
Jellyfish: a saltwater invertebrate which drifts with the currents to
get from place to place.
Juvenile (immature, subadult) a turtle which has commenced feeding (and
is no longer dependent on its yolk sac), but has not yet reached
Keel - a middorsal ridge of the carapace.
Kemp's Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) - the smallest and most endangered of the sea turtle species, for years it was known as
the bastard turtle on account of the fact that its nesting grounds were unknown, which led to the belief that it was
a hybrid between 2 other sea turtle species. Finally its nesting beaches were discovered at Rancho Nuevo, Mexico, the only
known nesting site for this species. The Kemps Ridley turtle nests in arribadas, coming ashore en masse to nest during the day (www.seaturtle.org).
Lateral - pertaining to the sides.
bridge - in turtles, hard-shelled plates that connect the plastron
to the carapace and found on both sides.
Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) - the largest of the seven species of marine turtle. The leatherback
turtle is the only marine turtle that is not a hard-shell and
takes its name from its leathery
shell. It roams the oceans feeding on jellyfish and other gelatinous
organisms. It is classified by the IUCN as critically endangered
Limited resource - those
resources that are in limited supply.
Locally Common - uncommon or absent over most of range,
but relatively common in one or more specific localities.
Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) - the loggerhead turtle is one of the seven
species of marine turtle. Its latin
name is Caretta caretta. It has a large logger head (hence
the name) to support its large jaw muscles used for crushing molluscs
and crustacea (www.seaturtle.org).
Lost years - the years between
a turtle's hatching and its return to coastal waters as a juvenile.
This period is estimated to be from thre to seven years.
Marine - spending
time mostly in salt water (i.e. ocean) surroundings.
Marine protected area (MPA, Marine Park) - any ocean zone or area that is given
special protection status for the management of some or all natural
or cultural resources that occur within the zone (www.seaturtle.org).
Mediterranean an part of the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Africa (Charton
& Tietjen, 1989).
Medusa (jellyfish) - a free-swimming stage in the life cycle of cnidarians.
Middorsal - middle of the back.
Migration - regular movement of animals from
one location to another one, usually associated with seasonal
changes or breeding and feeding cycles.
Mortality - refers to death rate.
- an abnormal gene that under certain circumstances can change
the appearance of an animal
beach - the beach where the turtle was originally hatched, or
homing - the behavior by which an animal returns to the place where it was born.
For sea turtles, adult females return to lay eggs in the general region where they were born
Natality - refers to births.
Native - naturally occurring in a particular
Neophyte - referringf to a nesting female turtle that is in the first reproductive season. Usually,
any female that has not been previously recorded nesting at a certain site is defined as a neophyte. However, it is
possible that a "new" turtle could be one that lost
its tags or switched nesting beaches. In general, it is difficult to distiguish true neophytes
without laparascopy (www.seaturtle.org).
Neritic - Pertaining to the near-shore, shallow-water zone of a sea over the continental
Nest - a collection of eggs that are all laid in the same period of time.
Nesting - the
process by which a turtle constructs a nest in the ground and
Nesting population (rookery) - a group of adult female turtles that tend to nest in a specific and defined region or beach (www.seaturtle.org).
Niche - the particular way in which an organism obtains its food and
reacts; the role a species plays in the community.
Nocturnal - active primarily at night.
an area beyond the edge of the continental shelf, usually where
the water is deeper than 200m.
Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) - Although
related to the Kemps Ridley, the Olive Ridley is the most numerous
sea turtle in the world, nesting on beaches in West Africa, Brazil, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Mexico, and
India. It also nests en masse in arribadas that can take place during the day or night (www.seaturtle.org).
Omnivore - an animal that eats both plants and animals. Hawksbill turtles are omnivores, eating algae, sponge
and corals (www.seaturtle.org).
Oviposition - the process of laying eggs.
Ovum (plural ova) -
Papillae - the esophagus of sea turtles is lined with keratinized projections
that point inward towards the stomach. The papillae end where
the esophagus joins the stomach and are presumed to trap food
while excess water is expelled prior to swallowing (www.seaturtle.org).
Parasite - an organism which obtains food and shelter from another organism. Sea turtles
can have various parasites, including leeches and protozoa (www.seaturtle.org).
Pathogen a disease-producing agent, usually applied to a living organism. Generally,
any virus, bacterium, or fungus that causes disease.
Pelagic - organisms that occupy the
water column, but not the sea floor, in either the neritic zone or oceanic zone. Leatherbacks are considered to be the most pelagic species of sea turtle (www.seaturtle.org).
Phytoplankton free-floating or flagellated microscopic aquatic microorganisms
temperature (threshold temperature) - the constant incubation temperature of eggs that will produce equal numbers of males and females.
The pivotal temperature is a characteristic of TSD
(Temperature-dependent Sex Determination) (www.seaturtle.org).
Plankton Microscopic organisms that drift freely with water currents
Plastral - relating
to the plastron.
Plastron - the
underside of the turtle shell.
Illegal harvest of wildlife.
Poikilotherm (cold-blooded) - an animal whose body temperature varies
with the temperature of the ambient environment.
contamination of air, water, or soil by toxic organic or
Population - a group of interbreeding animals of the same species that occupies a particular area, isolated from other such
density - the number of individuals of the same species in a given
Posterior - towards
the tail/rear of an animal (opposite to anterior).
Predation - when one species feeds on another species.
Predator - any animal that preys on other organisms, which are usually situated in
a lower trophic level, as a source of food. This can include herbivores,
carnivores and omnivores (www.seaturtle.org).
Preservation - the act of reserving, protecting or safeguarding a portion
of the natural environment, a species or a population from unnatural disturbance. It does not imply preserving
an area in its present state, for natural events and natural ecological
processes are expected to continue (www.seaturtle.org).
Prey an animal that is killed
and eaten by another.
Protect - to manage the conservation of ecosystems, habitat, or species.
Red Data Book species - species listed in catalogues published by the IUCN
or by national agencies, listing species which are rare, endangered
or vulnerable to extinction globally or nationally.
Red List - a list of organisms that are classified by the level of threat
to ongoing survival. Currently, the majority of listings are done
at the global species level. It is a product of the IUCN (World Conservation Union) (www.seaturtle.org).
Red-listed species - species identified as 'Extinct', 'Extinct in the wild',
'Critically endangered', 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable', 'Lower risk',
'Data deficient' or 'Not evaluated' according to criteria laid
down in the IUCN Red List Categories (International Union
for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994).
Rehabilitate - to restore the functions and processes
of a degraded ecosystem or habitat to an effective state rather
than an original state.
Relict species - a species believed to have been previously more widely distributed but now
restricted to a limited number of locations.
Relocation (translocation) - the removal of an organism from one site
and placing it in another. Sea turtle nests that are laid too close to the ocean or in a dangerous section
of beach are often relocated to safer areas (either on the beach or into a hatchery) (www.seaturtle.org).
Remigrant - a nesting female turtle that has been recorded nesting at a particular nesting beach before and has returned, or remigrated, to the nesting beach in a different subsequent year to nest again (www.seaturtle.org).
Remigration - migrating to a site for a second time. e.g. in turtles females migrate to
a nesting beach. If they return after 2 years this is called the remigration
(reptiles) - the taxonomic class
of vertebrates that includes snakes, lizards, turtles, tortoises
Restore - to return ecosystems or habitats
to their original structure and species composition.
Restricted range species
animals that are only found in a specific area or region.
Salinity - a measurement of salt dissolved in water; sea water salinity
is about 3.5 percent.
Sand suspended sediment or bed material with
a particle-size of 0.06-2.0 mm in diameter.
Scute - a horny
or keritanized plate that is part of the shell of a turtle. The number and particular grouping of carapace scutes can be used to distinguish the different species of sea turtle (www.seaturtle.org).
Sea turtle - a saltwater reptile which breathes air and spends most of its
life at sea.
Sex Ratio - a ratio of males to females in a population.
Sexual maturity - age at which animal is first capable of breeding.
Species taxonomic unit, a group of animals which are genetically related and are
able to interbreed to produce fertile young.
Spongivore - an animal that eats mainly sponges.
Hawksbill sea turtles are spongivores, although they also sometimes
eat algae and coral (www.seaturtle.org).
Sub-adult - an animal of not fully adult size/age but either sexually mature or
very close to sexual maturity.
- able to be maintained over an indefinite period of time.
target species- those species which are intended to be hunted or fished.
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) - the condition where the sex
of the offspring is influenced by the prevailing temperatures
during embryonic development. In sea turtles, warmer temperatures
produce more or all females, cool temperatures produce more or
all males, and the pivotal temperature is the constant incubation temperature that produces equal numbers of males and
females. TSD also occurs in other reptiles (crocodilians, some
freshwater and land turtles, some lizards), some types of fish,
some types of invertebrates, etc (www.seaturtle.org).
Terrapin - largely
fresh aquatic turtles.
time primarily on the land (opposite to aquatic).
Thermoregulate - to control
or adjust temperature.
Threatened - a species
that is not yet endangered, but is in danger of becoming endangered.
A species that appears on Appendix II of the Endangered Species
Act or on a State List of protected species as having a Threatened
Tomia) - the cutting edge of the beak or mandible. In some sea
turtles, the tomium of the lower jaw has a sharply serrated rim
corresponding to strong ridges on the inner surface of the upper
tomium. The serrated jaw or tomium allows for efficient grazing
of sea grasses (www.seaturtle.org).
Tortoise - any terrestrial chelonian from the Testudinidae family
Toxin - a chemical substance
that is dangerous when ingested.
Tracking - following the spatial movements of an animal. Typical tracking methods employ
satellite, radio, sonic or passive (ie, flipper or PIT tags) telemetry (www.seaturtle.org).
Transplant (relocate, transfer, rebury) - to relocate something to a new site. In the
case of marine turtles, clutches of eggs can be relocated or transplanted to a new location where they
may have a greater chance of success, for example if the clutch is likley to be washed over by waves or the clutch is under threat from predation or poaching (www.seaturtle.org).
Trophic level- the position of a species in a food chain, indicating its
level of energy transfer in the ecosystem.
- any marine (also terrestrial in the US) reptile of the order
- the opening at the base of the tail where excretes are expelled.
Ventral - referring
to the bottom or belly area of an animal (opposite of dorsal).
Vertebral - referring to the spinal region. The central row of scutes along
the top of the carapace.
Vertebrate - an animal with a segmented spinal column or backbone containing
a central spinal cord; fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
Vestigial -- Greatly reduced and non-functional.
Vulnerable -- at
risk because of low or declining numbers, occurrence at the fringe
of its range or in restricted areas, or for some other reason,
but is not threatened
caught - animals which were caught in the wild and brought into captivity.
Yellow-Listed Species - any indigenous
species or subspecies in B.C. that is not at risk, but may be
vulnerable during times of seasonal concentration.
Zonation - distribution of plants and
animals into zones or specific areas, which differ from each other
in species composition; caused by different environmental conditions
in each zone.
Zoology - a branch
of Biology concerned with the study of animals and aspects of
Zooplankton - drifting or floating microscopic
animals found at various depths in lakes, rivers, and seas.