1. How do sea turtles return to the vicinity
of their natal beach to nest?
2. How do sea turtles nest?
3. Do sea turtles become entranced when
4. What do sea turtle nests look like?
5. How many eggs do sea turtles lay?
6. What do sea turtle eggs look like?
7. What determines the sex of a sea turtle?
8. Do mother turtles attend to their nests?
9. Why do hatchlings emerge together?
10. Which species nest in the Mediterranean?
11. How do hatchlings and adults locate
12. What do sea turtles eat and do they
13. How deep can sea turtles dive?
14. How long can a sea turtle hold its
breath? And why do they drown?
15. How big was the largest sea turtle
16. What are the main threats to Mediterranean
17. Which species is most common in the
18. How are sea turtles tracked in the
ocean and how long can they be tracked for?
19. How and why are sea turtles identified?
20. What is a Remora?
21. Do sea turtles ever lay eggs underwater?
22. Do sea turtles court before mating?
23. What are the white organisms attached
to sea turtles and their tags?
24. How do scientists determine how a
25. What is the importance of sea turtles?
Why try to conserve them?
26. What are arribadas? What are names
and locations of some beaches where arribadas occur?
27. What species interact with loggerhead
28. What kinds of plants or animals do
loggerheads eat in the Mediterranean?
29. What types of animals feed on turtle
eggs and hatchlings?
30. Do hatchlings bond with each other?
31. Is there a relationship between body
size and clutch size?
32. Can sea turtles be kept as pets?
33. Can sea turtles survive in fresh
34. Are there any diseases in sea turtles
that are transferable to humans and vice versa?
35. How can sea turtles be aged?
36. How are sea turtle nesting beaches
and migration routes discovered?
1. How do sea turtles return to
the vicinity of their natal beach to nest?
There are several theories as to how they locate this area, but none
have yet been proven. The most common theories are:
Theory 1) Detection and utilisation of the Earth’s magnetic field:
Sea turtles may have the ability to detect the angle and intensity of
the Earth’s magnetic field and utilise these characteristics to determine
their latitude and longitude, enabling navigation of hundreds, even
thousands of kilometres. Recent studies confirm the ability of sea turtles
to detect the Earth’s magnetic fields. Current research is determining
whether they use this ability to navigate.
Theory 2) Natal homing/ imprinting (Carr):
It is widely believed that hatchlings imprint the unique qualities of
their natal beach whilst in the nest and/or during their first trip
from the nest to the sea. Beach characteristics used may include smell,
low-frequency sound (possibly the noise of the surf), magnetic fields,
the characteristics of seasonal offshore currents and celestial cues.
Theory 3) Social facilitation (Hendrikson):
Female turtles may follow older, experienced nesting turtles from their
feeding grounds to the rookery (breeding site).
2. How do sea turtles nest?
The nesting process consists of 8 stages. Firstly, the turtle emerges
from the sea and ascends the beach, searching for a suitable nesting
site (somewhere dark and quiet). Once at the chosen nesting site, she
begins body pitting (BP). Using all four flippers, she gets rid of dry
surface sand beneath her which would otherwise fall into her egg chamber
(EC) (forming a depression). Following BP, she commences digging her
nest (DN). Now she uses only her rear flippers, alternately, like hands,
and scoops out flippers full of damp sand. She scoops sand in one flipper
and rests this flipper on the surface, before throwing sand from her
other flipper to her side. She uses her emptied flipper to remove more
sand from inside the EC and flicks excavated sand from her other flipper.
When she can reach no deeper, she pauses and begins contractions, her
rear flippers raising off the sand’s surface simultaneously. Soon she
begins laying eggs (LE). Following each contraction, she drops between
1-4 eggs into the EC in quick succession. The eggs will almost fill
the EC. Once her clutch is complete, she closes the nest (CN). Using
her rear flippers in the same way as she did during the DN process,
she places sand inside the EC, until the eggs are completely covered.
She gently pats the damp sand on top of her eggs, using the underside
of her shell (plastron). The camouflaging (CA) process now begins. Slowly
moving forward, she throws dry, surface sand behind her. This is an
effort to conceal/camouflage the location of her eggs from would-be-predators.
She may travel in this way for over 3m. When the turtle ceases CA, she
descends the nesting beach, and heads for the sea. Lastly, she enters
the sea, and swims away from the beach.
3. Do sea turtles become entranced
No. It is a commonly stated myth. The nesting
process is difficult, tiring and time consuming. As sea turtles flippers
are well adapted for their marine life, they are not well adapted for
use on dry land, making movement clumsy. Although turtles will abandon
the nesting process if they are disturbed and feel threatened, due to
the effort involved, once egg laying (ovipositing) has begun, they are
less likely to abandon their nest. However, if ovipositing has not begun,
they are more likely to abandon nesting efforts, and return to the sea,
in which case they will attempt nesting later that same night or within
1-2 days of the original attempt.
4. What do sea turtle nests look
Turtle nests are “flask” shaped; narrow and elongated at the top and
wider and more rounded at the bottom. The depth of a nest depends upon
the species, with larger turtles like the Leatherback constructing nests
between 80cm-over 1m deep. Smaller species such as the Olive Ridley
construct shallower nests to a depth of
approximately 30cm. A turtle will dig down into the sand until she can
reach no deeper. The nest of a Leatherback differs from that of other
turtles in that instead of being rounded at the bottom, it is almost
rectangular in shape.
5. How many eggs do sea turtles
Depending on species, they may lay clutches containing on average 50-160+
eggs, and may lay more than one clutch in a season. Flatback turtles
(endemic to Australian waters) lay the smallest clutches (approximately
50 eggs per clutch). Hawksbill turtles lay the largest clutches, which
may contain over 200 eggs!
What do sea turtle eggs look like?
They are the size and shape of ping-pong balls with a soft shell. Usually
eggs are spherical in shape, although occasionally, they are mis-shaped
(elongated or adjoined with calcium strands). Some sea turtles lay small
infertile eggs, which only contain albumin (egg white). The Leatherback
turtle lays some of these small eggs in every clutch, whereas the other
species of sea turtle lay these eggs infrequently.
What determines the sex of a sea turtle?
The temperature of the nest determines a hatchlings sex. This is called
‘temperature -dependent sex determination’ (TSD). Warmer
temperatures produce mostly females, and cooler temperatures produce
a majority of males. There is a pivotal temperature that produces an
equal ratio of males and females. The temperature determining sex ratio
differs between species and nest locations.
Do mother turtles attend to their nests?
No, once a nest has been completed, the female never returns to it.
The eggs and resulting hatchlings are left to fend for themselves and
locate the water upon emerging.
Why do hatchlings emerge together?
As hatchlings are so small, and the egg chambers from which they emerge
are deep (between 30cm to 1m+ depth, depending
on species), it would be impossible for a single hatchling to escape
from the chamber alone. As hatchlings break free from their eggs inside
the egg chamber, they stimulate other hatchlings to emerge from their
eggs simultaneously. Once most hatchlings have emerged from their shells,
they climb on top of the discarded eggshells. Hatchlings higher up the
egg chamber scratch down sand from above and around them. The hatchlings
make use of this sand and the discarded eggshells, like an elevator
and ascend the egg chamber. Hatchlings beneath push those above out
of the egg chamber. They emerge en masse
or in small groups. Emerging together increases the chance of survival
as many hatchlings can overwhelm would-be predators. A single hatchling
would be an easy meal.
10. Which species nest in the
Three species are found in this region: Loggerheads, Greens and Leatherbacks,
but only Loggerhead and Green turtles nest here. The Leatherback is
an occasional visitor to the waters of the Mediterranean, but does not
How do hatchlings and adults locate the ocean?
Sea turtles are ‘phototactic’, meaning that they are attracted
to light, and so head towards the brightest
light, which in nature is the moonlight reflecting on the sea, or the
white surf line. They orientate themselves towards the seaward (bright)
horizon. Turtles avoid shadows, including vegetation at the back of
the beach, places where danger could lie.
What do sea turtles eat and do they have teeth?
Each species feeds on a diet specific to that species. For example,
Loggerheads feed mainly on hard-shelled organisms such as lobsters,
crustaceans, and fish, Green turtles prefer sea grasses and Leatherbacks
feed exclusively on jellyfish. Plastic bags are often mistaken by turtles
for jellyfish and are eaten. Plastic may accumulate inside a turtles
gut and make the turtle feel full, when in fact it is hungry, this may
result in starvation. Plastic may also lead to suffocation. Although
Green sea turtles jaws are serrated, all sea turtles jaws lack teeth.
The Leatherbacks jaw has 2 prominent “cusps” on the upper
jawbone, distinguishing it from the other turtles.
How deep can sea turtles dive?
Leatherbacks can dive to a depth of more than 1000m in search of their
prey, jellyfish. The smaller species are unable to dive to such great
depths. The Leatherback is adapted to deep dives because of its unique
morphology. Unlike other sea turtles, the Leatherback lacks a rigid
breastbone/ lower chest, allowing the chest to collapse during deep
dives. There is a large amount of oil in the skin and the Leathery shell
absorbs Nitrogen, reducing problems arising from decompression during
deep dives and resurfacing.
14. How long can a sea turtle
hold its breath? And why do they drown?
As sea turtles are air breathing reptiles, they
need to surface to breathe. Sea turtles can hold their breath
for several hours, depending upon the level of activity. A resting/sleeping
turtle can remain underwater for over 4-7 hours. Recent research has
shown that some turtles can even hibernate in the sea for several months!
However, a stressed turtle, for instance entangled in fishing gear,
quickly uses up oxygen stored within its body and may drown within minutes
How big was the largest sea turtle ever recorded?
The largest species of sea turtle was the Archelon, which measured 7m
in length and lived in Prehistoric times. Today, the largest living
species is the Leatherback. There are 2 sub-species, the Pacific Leatherback
and the Atlantic Leatherback. The Atlantic Leatherback is slightly larger
than the Pacific population. Leatherbacks measure an average of just
less than 2m in carapace (shell) length. The largest Leatherback ever
recorded was a male found stranded (washed ashore) on the Welsh coast
in 1987. He measured almost 3m (291cm) from tip to tail and weighed
What are the main threats to Mediterranean sea turtles?
Anthropogenic (human caused) threats are numerous and include degradation
and/or loss of nesting habitat, sand compaction through driving vehicles
on nesting beaches, sand raking and/or removal, marine pollution and
disease, incidental catch by fisheries (specifically shrimp trawlers
and long lines), boat strike by speeding boats, tourism development,
etc. Currently, the biggest threat to sea turtles is fishing activity,
with incidental catches of thousands of turtles each year.
Which species is most common in the Mediterranean?
The Loggerhead is the most common species. The largest nesting assemblage
is on the Greek Island of Zakynthos, on a private nesting beach of less
than 600 metres. This beach is the most densely nested Loggerhead beach
in the World, with almost 200 emergences recorded every night during
peak nesting season!
How are sea turtles tracked in the ocean and how long can they be tracked
Researchers track sea turtles through a process called “satellite
telemetry”. A transmitter (small computer) is attached to the
turtle’s carapace (on hard shelled species) or is worn as a ‘backpack’
(fastened around) a Leatherback. The transmitter emits signals of information
to an orbiting satellite when the turtle surfaces to breathe or bask.
The information in the signals is de-coded prior to being forwarded
to receiving stations on Earth, and then it is sent to the researchers
computer as a dataset. This data provides information on the turtle’s
location, number of dives during the last day, length of the most recent
dive, water temperature, etc. Data received over a period allows for
tracking a turtles movement patterns and swimming speed. Usually, satellite
transmitters are attached to gravid (egg bearing) females that come
ashore to nest. Tracking has provided important information on migration
routes between breeding and foraging (feeding) habitats. Length of tracking
depends upon how long the device remains on the turtle (they may be
knocked off or fall off) and on battery life. Tracking usually continues
for 6-10 months, although cases have been reported exceeding 2 years.
How and why are sea turtles identified?
Both external and internal markers (tags) are used to enable the identification
of a specific individual. External tags are made from metal (monel or
inconel) or plastic. Internal tags are called “Passive Integrated
Transponder tags” or “PIT tags”. These are microchips
consisting of metal and glass. Both external and internal tags display
a unique series of letters and numbers, a bar code, eg, ZA214. External
tags are clipped onto the turtles’ flipper(s), and are clearly
visible to the eye. On the back of flipper tags is the address of the
organisation applying the tags. Tags found can be returned with details
of date and location when found together with information on the turtle,
e.g., whether it was nesting, dead, etc. PIT tags are more expensive
and only visible through the use of expensive scanning equipment, which
when held over a PIT tag, displays the tag code. Only one PIT tag is
needed for each animal and is injected into the turtles shoulder muscle.
They are more secure than external tags as they
cannot fall off and get lost. By using tags information can be
collected on where the turtle was tagged, the number of nests constructed
in a season, growth rates, fecundity, etc.
What is a Remora?
A remora is a pelagic (open ocean) fish found in warmer areas. Remoras
attach themselves to sea turtles and other marine animals through a
suction disc located on the top of their head. As they lack a swim bladder,
attaching themselves to larger marine animals enables them to travel
through the oceans. They are not parasites. They
remove parasitic organisms and pose no threat to their host. For this
reason, they are referred to as a type of “cleaner” fish.
Do sea turtles ever lay eggs underwater?
Sea turtles lay eggs (oviposit) on sandy beaches. Their eggs breathe
air through their membranes and so cannot survive if they are continuously
covered with water. Nesting turtles sometimes abandon nesting if they
are disturbed and are scared back to sea, but they usually try to nest
again elsewhere later that night or within 1-2 days of the failed attempt.
Turtles disturbed during several nesting attempts may abort their eggs
in the sea if they can’t carry them any longer. Once a clutch
of eggs is ripe, they must be deposited, to allow for development of
another clutch. Captive turtles have been known to drop eggs into the
Do sea turtles court before mating?
Most sea turtle studies have focused on land when the females nest,
for ease of observation. Little research has been conducted in the sea,
so there is limited knowledge on their behaviour in the water. It is
known that sea turtle “courtship” usually occurs offshore
the nesting beach. Males approach any female turtle, and occasionally
logs, and scuba divers who resemble the females! Several males compete
for the same female. She mates with them during the breeding season,
and has the ability to retain their sperm from one season to the next.
She uses the sperm of several males to fertilise her clutches, increasing
the gene pool. Further studies are needed on courtship behaviour.
What are the white organisms attached to sea turtles and their tags?
The white organisms may be a type of barnacle (a crustacean, which at
the adult stage attaches itself to a solid surface). They are often
found attached both to the hard and soft parts of a sea turtle and/
or their flipper tags. Biologists are researching into whether barnacles
negatively affect sea turtles. Their presence can make tag reading difficult,
How do scientists determine how a turtle died?
Cause of death can be determined by conducting a ‘necropsy’.
This is a turtle’s autopsy. By removing the outer shell of the
turtle, the inner organs can be studied in detail. Although external
trauma may be obvious through direct observation, e.g., shell breakage,
limb amputation, bite marks, etc., necropsies allow observation of otherwise
unseen, internal trauma, e.g., disease, refuse presence (plastic), etc.
What is the importance of sea turtles? Why try to conserve them?
Sea turtles are one of the longest living groups of animals to have
ever existed, having far outlived the Dinosaurs. They have existed for
approximately 200m years, and survived perfectly well until human activities
placed them under increasing pressure. They act as environmental indicators.
When populations are healthy (disease is uncommon), it reflects on the
health of their marine habitat. They feed on a variety of organisms,
e.g., Hawksbills eat sponges and corals, providing space for reef colonisation
by other organisms, increasing species diversity. They feed other organisms,
e.g., insects, crabs, fish, etc. which prey upon them at various life
stages. Nutrients turtles produce through digestion feed other organisms.
They provide a habitat for an array of animals including cleaner fish,
and various barnacle species, some of which
are exclusive to sea turtles. Sea turtles are an intricate part of their
ecosystem. If they are wiped out, many organisms dependant upon them
will also be affected.
Sea turtles make substantial nutrient and energy contributions to beaches,
promoting plant growth, stabilising beach and dune systems. Green sea
turtles graze seagrass beds, increasing
the productivity of those areas. Leatherback turtles are major jellyfish
predators, providing natural ecological control of jellyfish populations.
If the decline in sea turtle populations is allowed to continue,
it could have severe consequences on many marine and terrestrial plant
and animal species that depend on sea turtles for their survival.
Furthermore, sea turtles are a flagship species, which means they are
a species chosen to represent an environmental cause conserving the
marine ecosystem and wildlife. Chosen for their charismatic nature,
distinctiveness and vulnerable status, sea turtles engender public support
and thus assist leverage of the entire ecosystem and associated species.
What are arribadas? What are names and locations of some beaches where
"Arribada" means 'arrival' in Spanish. It describes a mass-nesting event
of the ridley sea turtles. Such an event occurs when large numbers of
turtles have gathered off shore to form a "flotilla". Then they emerge
from the sea en masse and nest synchronously over the course of 3 -
There used to be arribadas
with 40, 000 + turtles on one beach on one day in Mexico in the early
1960's. Sadly today, although they do still occur, numbers have decreased
dramatically, mainly through poaching, to only a few thousand nesting
females. In other areas numbers have dwindled to the point where arribadas
no longer occur on beaches that used to experience them.
Today, arribadas occur in
places such as Ostional, Costa Rica, Rancho Nuevo, Mexico and Devi,
What species interact with loggerhead sea turtles?
Although sea turtles are solitary animals, Loggerheads have been known
to visit cleaning stations where omnivorous fish feed on the micro-organisms
found on turtles soft and hard body surfaces. Fish also feed on resting
What is the diet of sea turtles in the Mediterranean?
Loggerhead turtles generally feed on both plants and animals but they
are mainly carnivorous. Their diet contains various species of algae,
including Sargassum weed, which as hatchlings they also utilize as a
'float'. After emerging from their nests, leaving the beach, and moving
into the open sea, they drift into deeper water which carries them into
the Sargassum weed. This weed provides them with cover from would be
predators and collects floating objects including zoo and phytoplankton
which they feed on.
Loggerheads jaws are adapted
to eating hard objects, such as crabs, barnacles, Lobster, bivalves,
whelks, conchs and sea urchins. They can easily crush the hard shells
of these animals. They also feed on sponges, jellyfish, shrimp, fish
and fish eggs, as well as on a variety of plants, so they are classed
also eat waste products such as plastic and rope, which they mistake
as food items.
Which animals prey on eggs and hatchlings on nesting beaches?
The animals that prey on hatchlings in the Mediterranean depend on the
location but include seagulls, crabs (particularly Ghost crabs), red
foxes and fish. In addition to these natural predators, stray dogs also
pose a threat.
Eggs are predated on by red
foxes, rats, raccoons, dogs, and insects, including various species
of fly larvae (maggots). Birds and crabs become predators following
exposure of the eggs by the mammals mentioned above.
Do hatchlings bond with each other?
Sea turtles are solitary animals. Although they hatch together in large
numbers, and make use of each other to ascend the nest, they enter the
sea alone. They do not leave a beach in a group, but are transported
by the waves to wherever the current flows. Sometimes they may be found
together floating in a 'sargassum', or some other 'raft', however they
remain solitary. Sea turtles may congregate at feeding grounds or developmental
habitats, but solely for the purpose of feeding on the food sources
present. When turtles are held in captivity as hatchlings, they do not
appear to 'bond' with each other. When larger turtles are held in one
tank they can be aggressive towards one another and will bite.
there a relationship between body size and clutch size?
Flatback turtles (endemic
to Australia) produce small clutches, much smaller than those of other
turtle species. This is likely due to their shell shape being flatter
and therefore narrower than other sea turtle species. Soft shelled Leatherbacks
produce relatively small clutches compared to the smaller hard-shelled
sea turtles, they are the largest of all sea turtles. Clutch size has
been found to have a positive relationship with shell size in Green
turtles and in some populations of Loggerheads. With Olive ridleys there
is a positive relationship between clutch size and shell size. This
relationship makes sense because the larger the body size, the more
space there is for eggs to develop internally. Sea turtles basically
become egg producing machines during the breeding season, and have several
clutches developing at a given time. However, body to clutch size relationships
vary, even within a nesting season a turtle may lay clutches of varying
Can sea turtles be kept as pets?
All species of sea turtle are classified on the IUCN Red List as threatened
or endangered. As such, it is illegal to handle them or to keep one
as a pet. Specific permits (under CITES-Convention of International
Trade in Endangered Species) are required to handle a sea turtle or
its products and to house them legally (usually in Aquariums or Rescue
Centres, which should provide adequate facilities to properly care for
them). It would be very difficult for a member of the public lacking
training and required facilities to correctly care for a sea turtle.
Anyone discovered by the authorities to be keeping a sea turtle as a
pet or in inappropriate conditions is liable for prosecution.
Can sea turtles survive in fresh water??
When in captivity, sea turtles should be maintained in water with a
salinity level falling within a range of that of normal, natural, incoming
seawater. Short periods of holding sea turtles in fresh water can be
tolerated and are useful when prescribed by a veterinarian, e.g., to
remove parasites and fouling epibiota such as barnacles. However, prolonged
periods in fresh water should not be encouraged. Sea turtles are meant
for life in the sea, so they do best in an environment with a similar
Are there any diseases in sea turtles that are transferable to humans
and vice versa?
Numerous bacterial infections have been identified from sea turtles.
One type of bacteria that is transferable between turtle and humans
is Salmonella, present in all turtles (land, fresh water and sea turtle
species). It is advisable when handling a sea turtle to wear latex gloves
or if not available, to thoroughly wash hands both before handling the
turtle to rid of any bacteria on our hands, and after handling to rid
of any bacteria on the turtle. Sea turtles are highly sensitive creatures
that are well adapted to their sea environment, but are easily stressed
when they come into contact with man made pollutants, such as agricultural
pesticide runoff. Currently, one of the biggest threats to Green turtles
in particular is a disease called "Fibropapillomatosis" or "FP" for
short, although it has more recently been observed in other species
of sea turtle. This is directly linked with areas of high levels of
human activity and high levels of pollution.
How can sea turtles be aged?
Patterns of growth rates in sea turtles have been difficult to assess,
mainly because of a lack of methods available to age them. Techniques
have been developed more recently that estimate age from the number
of growth layers of bones. The humerus, one of the forelimb bones, gives
the best indicator of age as they retain the greatest number of growth
layers. There are limitations using growth layers for aging. In mature
turtles, early growth layers are re-adsorbed, growth rates may not be
constant and they are not necessarily annual. Growth studies have been
conducted where a fluorescent chemical has been injected into adult
sea turtles. When these turtles are located years later, the humerus
has been examined beneath a microscope during biopsy, and growth layers
are clear and countable. Unfortunately, this technique has not been
used on young turtles, so unless the turtles age is known for definite,
these techniques will only ever provide estimates. Techniques for using
bones to determine age are complicated, but are described in detail
in articles included in the Bibliography. Currently there is no accurate
technique available for aging sea turtles only methods for estimation
are described in literature.
How are sea turtle nesting beaches and migration routes discovered?
Discovering potential sea turtle nesting beaches has been a component
of MEDASSET's work in the Mediterranean for over 25 years now in countries
such as Libya, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt. Sea turtles select their specific
nesting site through a complex procedure involving a multitude of factors,
including many natural ones (e.g. geomorphology, beach inclination,
moisture content, sea and sand temperature, sand compactness). The process
of finding nesting beaches involves scientific assessments of beaches,
investigating the many natural factors and assessing whether human impact
could be a deterrent (presence of boats, lights, noise, pollution, development
etc.). Speaking with the local community and fisherman can provide insight
into whether nesting occurs now or whether it has in the past.
Sea turtle's migration routes
can be found using satellite tracking from an electronic transmitter
fitted on the turtle's carapace. To see some sea turtle migration routes
please visit: http://www.seaturtle.org/tracking/
S. and Delcroix, E. (2005).
Underwater Oviposition by a Hawksbill Turtle
French West Indies. Marine Turtle Newsletter
K.A. (1995). Biology and Conservation of Sea
Turtles (Revised Edition). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
Caribbean Conservation Corporation and Sea Turtle Survival League. (2003).
How Tracking Sea Turtles by Satellite Works.
Bjorndal, K.A., Abreu-Grobois, F.A. and Donnelly, M. (Editors). (1999).
Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation
of Sea Turtles. IUCN / SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication
E.H. (2001). Swimming Against the Tide: Recent
Surveys of Exploitation, Trade, and Management of Marine Turtles in
the Northern Caribbean. TRAFFIC North America, USA.
Houghton, J.D.R., Crafton I., King, R.S, Lloyd, C. & Lovell, P.
(2004). First records of oceanic dive profiles
for leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, indicate behavioural
plasticity associated with long-distance migration. Animal Behaviour,
67, 733 – 743.
Available on line at: http://www.turtle.ie/publications/Hays_Anim_Beh_2004.pdf
A. (1995). Caretta: The Loggerhead Sea Turtle
in Greece. Erevnites, Greece.
(2002). "Remora remora" (On-line),
Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Remora_remora.html
(1990). The Leatherback Turtle. National
Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
(1996). Sea Turtles. Colin Baxter Photography
Scotia Leatherback Turtle Working Group (NSLTWG). (2005). http://www.seaturtle.ca/research.htm
Gulko, D. and Eckert, K. (2004). Sea Turtles:
An Ecological Guide. Mutual Publishing, Hawaii. 122pp. Also available
and Musick, J.A. (1997). The Biology of Sea Turtles.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 432pp.
If the information you are looking for is not present on this FAQ page
or on the Euroturtle website, please email your question to the following